CANCER TREATMENT WITH FAECAL TRANSPLANT

This note is from my newsfeed: I have no comments to make, but it seems important.

The cancer–microbiome connection

Zion Levi’s melanoma went into remission thanks to a powerful immunotherapy drug called nivolumab. Then he donated his faeces — and the microbes inside — to help others who had failed to respond to the treatment or whose cancers had become resistant to it. It was a small trial — it involved only 26 people — but one in three of them benefited from the faecal microbial transfer (FMT). Today, at least 30 FMT trials are under way around the world. They hint at a new era of ‘ecological oncology’ and aim to uncover how the gut microbiome influences the progression of distant tumours, the effectiveness of treatments and the organisms that live in tumours themselves.

Antioxidants lower dementia risk (pseudo-news)

The note below is from a report by Sharon Reynolds, dated 2022-05-24, on the NIH website (I have paraphrased it, for brevity and clarity).

In “Antioxidants and DementiaMore Than Meets the Eye“, J. Neurology May 24, 2022, Babak Hooshmand and Miia Kivipelto report on blood levels of antioxidants in more than 7,000 people, aged 45 to 90, enrolled in the NHANES study of nutrition between 1988 and 1994. These people were followed for an average of 16 years to see who developed Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias.
The compounds analyzed included carotenoids, a large group of antioxidant pigments found in plants, and some vitamins.

The team found that people with generally higher blood levels of all kinds of carotenoids were less likely to develop dementia, but when lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet, and socioeconomic factors like education and income, the benefit of higher blood carotenoid levels disappeared.

The team then looked at individual carotenoids and found that lutein and zeaxanthin, found in green, leafy vegetables, and β-cryptoxanthin, which is found in some orange-colored fruits definitely reduced the risk of dementia, even when other health, lifestyle, and social factors were taken into account (the size of the effect was reduced to some extent by these adjustments).

In contrast, according to the authors, blood levels of the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E weren’t individually associated with dementia risk. Also, their analyses suggested that high levels of vitamin A and E might actually counteract the effects of other antioxidants.
The findings suggest that the protective effects of some antioxidants may depend on the presence of other molecules in the body.

None of this is new; so what’s the point of mentioning it?
The point is that those of us who follow newsfeeds are inundated with “grabber headlines”, which make us think that some brand-new research has come up with amazing scientific facts, although the coverage by the “report” is incomplete at best and often, inaccurate.

For example, a look at the Wikipedia entry re. Antioxidants yields a quick list: vitamin C, glutathione, lipoic acid, uric acid, carotenes, vitamin E and CoQ10 (ubiquinone).
However your body’s best anti-oxidants are Vitamin D and Melatonin ** and although brightly coloured fruits and vegetables are extremely important in our diet, perhaps the best supplement is NAC (N Acetyl Cysteine), which generates glutathione.

** For melatonin, see “Antioxidant properties of melatonin–an emerging mystery”, by
C E Beyer  1 J D SteketeeD Saphier, in “Biochem Pharmacol”, 1998 Nov 15;56(10): 1265-72, doi: 10.1016/s0006-2952(98)00180-4.
For vitamin D, see “Vitamin D is a membrane antioxidant. Ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol, ergosterol and tamoxifen and relevance to anticancer action”, by H Wiseman, in FEBS Lett, 1993 Jul 12;326(1-3):285-8, doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(93)81809-e.

So once again, what’s the reason for this blog entry?

The reason for this blog entry is to remind you to take newsfeed headlines with a grain of salt and always, double-check them on the web, for yourself.


THE HYPOTHYROIDISM DEBATE CONTINUES

Thyroid expert Dr. Antonio C. Bianco, MD, PhD, speaking at the American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) annual meeting, has just acknowledged that many patients (he says 10 – 20%, but as you will agree, this percentage is much larger), treated for hypothyroidism using levothyroxine (T4, the “number one prescribed drug in the country”), fail to experience an improvement in their symptoms.

Of course, this isn’t news to those of you who are familiar with abnormal thyroid function.
However the fact is that a major player in traditional medicine is willing to admit that something is wrong with medical doctors’ usual treatment for hypothyroidism.
So: it seems that our doctors’ understanding of the problem is improving.
That’s REALLY encouraging!

Dr. Bianco, further to his credit, has noted that combination therapy with T4 and T3 doesn’t entirely solve the problem for folks with low thyroid function (as you may know, slow-release T3 is the best way to go).
However it seems that the medical establishment is not yet ready to embrace the idea of treating Hypothyroidism with slow-release T3.

If you would like to read about Dr. Bianco’s article, please see “Debate Continues on Combination Therapy for Hypothyroidism“, by Miriam E. Tucker, dated May 20, 2022

the URL for this article is https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/974330

Anticancer plant virus

This just came into my newsfeed: I can’t guarantee or recommend it, and although it looks encouraging, it may be one of those “leads” that just fizzles out and is never heard from again; however it certainly seems sufficiently promising to pass on to my readers. The quotation below comes entirely from the newsfeed.

“Cowpea mosaic virus, a plant virus that infects legumes, when injected into a tumor, activates the immune system to treat the cancer and prevent it from returning.
Researchers at the University of California San Diego and Dartmouth College have spent the last seven years studying and testing cowpea mosaic virus—in the form of nanoparticles—as a cancer immunotherapy and have reported encouraging results in lab mice and companion dog patients. Its effectiveness has been unrivaled by other cancer-fighting techniques examined by the researchers. However, the precise reasons for its effectiveness have remained a mystery”.

For details regarding this, see the article, “Cowpea Mosaic Virus Outperforms Other Members of the Secoviridae as In Situ Vaccine for Cancer Immunotherapy”,
by Veronique Beiss, Chenkai Mao, Steven N. Fiering and Nicole F. Steinmetz,
Molecular Pharmaceutics, 25 March 2022, at………
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00058 or click on
DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00058


EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE CORRUPTED

I just received an article entitled “The illusion of evidence based medicine“,
in BMJ 2022; 376 doi: https://www.bmj.com/content/376/bmj.o702/article-info Published 16 March 2022: BMJ 2022;376:o702in

The BMJ (the British Medical Journal) is arguably, the world’s premier medical journal in terms of length of service, ethics, reputation and kudos: this editorial is of the utmost importance and I hope that visitors to this website will read it.

The gist of the article is: “Evidence-based medicine has been corrupted by corporate interests, failed regulation, and commercialisation of academia” …… and ………
“The release into the public domain of previously confidential pharmaceutical industry documents has given the medical community valuable insight into the degree to which industry sponsored clinical trials are misrepresented.”

MESSAGE

I would add that due to the situation as described, non-academic physicians are actively discouraged from submitting their views and their experience to medical journals.
Articles cannot be presented to medical journals by ordinary physicians and specialists.
No journal will accept a submission for printing unless one of the authors is a member of staff at a teaching hospital.

SO for example, an analysis of my 601 cases of investigation and treatment of DHEA deficiency has not been published and I have been unable to access funding via the Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons (I have enquired thrice) because I do not have a hospital appointment.

By this subterfuge, a valuable education resource, the opinion of your family MD, has been effectively vetoed, in the interest of granting sole proprietorship of information and advancement of knowledge to industry-dependent academics. The experience-based opinion of the observant non-academic physician dies with him, or her.

NOTE
This BMJ editorial opinion was printed on 16th March, 2022, but on brief inspection of the web I found the following (there are many more):

WHAT CAN YOU DO …… ? I have no suggestions …… if you think of something, or have a question, do send a note !

WHY DO FOLKS DIE, WHILE RECOVERING FROM A HEART ATTACK?

New PAPER: re. MORTALITY AFTER HEART ATTACK

I just received a recent paper, entitled “Association of Financial Strain With Mortality Among Older US Adults Recovering From an Acute Myocardial Infarction“, In JAMA Intern Med. Published online February 21, 2022, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.8569, By Jason R. Falvey, PT, DPT, PhD1; Alexandra M. Hajduk, PhD, MPH2; Christopher R. Keys, JD3; et al Sarwat I. Chaudhry, MD4 .

The paper reads as follows:
“Between 5% and 7% of all older adults in the US report severe financial strain, defined as substantial difficulty meeting monthly needs.1
Severe financial strain among older adults is associated with lower medication adherence,2 which may negatively affect recovery for older adults following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). **
However, the relationships between financial strain and AMI outcomes for older adults have not been evaluated. In this cohort study, we hypothesized severe financial strain would be associated with elevated mortality risk following an AMI.”

It continues:
“After adjustment, severe financial strain was associated with a 61% increase in 180-day mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.41) compared with those with no strain. Moderate financial strain was not associated with mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.78-1.39).Feb 21, 2022″.

** My “take’ on this conundrum is as follows:
This is nothing to do with the patient’s failing to take pills.
Please see an explanation of the increased mortality in the text box, below !


AN ACUTE MI, PLUS SEVERE FINANCIAL STRAIN, CAUSES STRESS
which results in
INCREASED CORTISOL.
Throughout the body, the high cortisol instantly produces
 DEIODINASE #1 BLOCKADE, PLUS DEIODINASE #3 ACTIVATION.
 This makes T3 production stop inside the cells, so there is
CATASTROPHIC REDUCTION OF INTRACELLULAR TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3).
 With insufficient T3 in the cells, the effect is
 CARDIOMYOCYTE (HEART-MUSCLE CELL) PARALYSIS AND
HEART FAILURE

Not only that: intracellular hypothyroidism happens all over, with resulting
MULTIPLE ORGAN WEAKENING,
then

DEATH
 
MESSAGE

When you have a heart attack, the shock, worry and stress of thinking about what has happened to your body is enough to raise your Cortisol.

High cortisol reduces Thyroid3 production inside all the cells in your body.

If you have anything else to worry about (? your will, your job, your cash flow, your kids ?), the total stress can drop the Thyroid3 in your cells to almost zero.
Then you have intracellular hypothyroidism.

Intracellular hypothyroidism affects everything in the body, producing mild, moderate or severe symptoms which may include fatigue, heightened anxiety, “fuzzy thinking”, memory loss, insomnia, constipation, and weakness of all muscles, including the muscles that drive food through your bowel (hence the constipation) and the big muscle which is your heart.

Heart muscle weakness of hypothyroidism, which is a Takotsubo-type cardiomyopathy, can be mild and transient, or enough to cause heart failure.

SO, regardless of whether you have financial problems or not, you should check your T3/rT3 thyroid balance after a heart attack.

If your T3/reverse T3 turns out to be under 20 (which is more likely if the rT3 is over 13), your heart muscle is at risk.
The problem is fixable with T3 pills.(click here, to go to my blog post, “More about Cardiomyopathy” and read the last two paragraphs).

Note that stress-free people recover from their attack without any difficulty, because stress relief corrects the thyroid balance (as it does in stress cardiomyopathy, AKA Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy). However there is no other way of quantifying your stress and also, checking the T3/rT3 balance, along with your other blood tests, is easy.

REFERENCES
Instead of the usual references, I have inserted links.
Note that there are 3 links to cardiomyopathy articles, including one in my blog. Everybody should know about this condition, so PLEASE have a look at them all.

COMPOUNDED MEDICATION BAN

The US FDA says that Bioidenticals are a “Public Health Concern”.
A ban on BHRT is likely!

From an article in the “Green Medicine” Magazine by Jonathan V. Wright M.D. | Mar 7, 2022 |
GM Articles, and Susan Merenstein. [1]

THAT’S TERRIBLE FOR WOMEN IN THE USA,
BUT WHAT ABOUT WOMEN IN CANADA ?

The US FDA has announced [2] that, based on a study which they commissioned, [3] the use of compounded BHT is a public health concern: a ban on BHRT is likely.
The FDA will likely move quickly to ban these critical medicines, starting with Estriol, which by volume, forms 80% of BIEST (BIEST cures Hot Flashes, protects women from osteoporosis, reduces the probability of breast cancer, prevents postmenopausal deterioration of the female organs and helps to prevent urine loss).

The idea that BHRT is a public health “concern” has no factual basis. [4]
(1) A review [2] of the clinical literature concluded that bioidentical hormones pose lower risks, including the risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease, than “big pharma” can provide. This is true, if only because compounded BHRT allows tailoring of the dose to fit the needs of the individual woman.
(2) The review concluded that compounded HRT creams [2] are more effective than synthetic or animal-derived hormones.
(3) Members of the NASEM committee, the FDA’s study group, acknowledged [3] that women prefer Compounded BHT, but said that women’s preference is not enough to justify its use.
(4) The result will be that US women may not be able to obtain Estriol, which is included in the BIEST formulation because it protects against breast cancer.

WHAT THE FDA SAYS, IN EFFECT, IS:

“We know better than women and their doctors”.

As Dr. Wright says,
  • The grassroots must mobilize, in the interest of their health and wellbeing.
    We need to put forward a strong response to this threat.
  • What seems to be underway is an attempt to create drug company monopolies: this cannot be allowed to stand.
    This is one more case of “the system” favouring the bottom line of big drug companies, over the welfare of the people, women in particular.

MESSAGE {from Dr. Wright):

MESSAGE (from Dr. Harry):
This is “the thin edge of the wedge” [5]. A successful ban on Estriol will, inescapably, be followed by further inroads on the practice of compounding pharmacy.
The eventual result will be the outlawing of compounding,
so that all medications and supplements can be supplied
by big pharmaceutical companies in the USA.
BUT THERE IS AN IMPORTANT CAVEAT:
WHAT ABOUT CANADIAN WOMEN?
SHOULD WE DO NOTHING, JUST WAIT UNTIL IT HITS US, TOO ?
REFERENCES

[1] https://bit.ly/3iAbozd

[2] https://www.fda.gov/drugs/human-drug-compounding/national-academies-science-engineering-and-medicine-nasem-study-clinical-utility-treating-patients

[3] https://www.nationalacademies.org/our-work/clinical-utility-of-treating-patients-with-compounded-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy

[4] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23959867_The_Bioidentical_Hormone_Debate_Are_Bioidentical_Hormones_Estradiol_Estriol_and_Progesterone_Safer_or_More_Efficacious_than_Commonly_Used_Synthetic_Versions_in_Hormone_Replacement_Therapy

[5] https://anh-usa.org/fda-rigs-process-against-estriol-other-bioidenticals/

 

RECENT ATTACKS ON MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTS

MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTS SUBJECTED TO LIBEL

Over the past month or so, I have seen no less than 6 headlines in my news feed, to do with the dangers of taking Melatonin Supplements.
This one, a diatribe about an article from NCCIH (a branch of the NIH, the National Institute of Health), came in on the 3rd of Feb.
I didn’t save the others.

THE HEADLINE
“Using Melatonin Supplements for sleep is on the rise, study says, despite potential health harms”

THE “STUDY
DATED February 1, 2022, it totaled 669 words. It was a letter, not an in-depth research paper.
Titled “Trends in Use of Melatonin Supplements Among US Adults, 1999-2018”, the “study”, published in the medical journal JAMA, found that by 2018 Americans were taking more than twice the amount of Melatonin which they took a decade earlier.

It says that Melatonin has been linked to headache, dizziness, nausea, stomach cramps, drowsiness, confusion or disorientation, irritability and mild anxiety, depression and tremors, as well as abnormally low blood pressure.
Further, it says that Melatonin also interacts with common medications and can trigger allergies.

THE PROBLEM WITH THE HEADLINE

The tone of the headline implies that Melatonin is a dangerous substance and should be avoided. In my view it is ill-considered, unreasonable, irresponsible hyperbole, designed to inflate the rare and minor side effects of Melatonin supplements and label them “DANGEROUS”.

So the question arises: why the repeated attacks, discrediting Melatonin supplementation?
Is it simply a routine newsfeed ploy with the object of garnering readership, for profit?
Or is it perhaps, a deliberate, sinister effort to discourage sales of a natural supplement in favour of truly dangerous, addictive, synthetic sleeping pills?

Remember: Melatonin is a normal, natural body chemical, vitally necessary to all plants and animals.
It is in our foods (all foods).
Our bodies need it and most of us over age 50 are deficient.
It is not primarily a “sleep hormone”: it is a vital antioxidant which we need for brain detoxification, mitochondrial support, immune system regulation and cancer prevention.

It may be fair to counsel restraint and advocate caution, but repeated online vilification of Melatonin supplements is suspicious, to say the least.

MY SUGGESTION
I suggest that my readers should instead, see my page on Melatonin, or read
the best article
I have seen on the subject (#15, in the list of references appended to the page). save you some time, here is the title of my preferred article (actually, it’s a chapter of a book):
An Overview of Melatonin as an Antioxidant Molecule: A Biochemical Approach
intechopen.com/chapters/62672.
Written By Aysun Hacışevki and Burcu Baba, in the edited volume “MELATONIN”,
Edited by Cristina Manuela Drăgoi and Alina Crenguţa Nicolae, Nov. 5th, 2018,
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.7942, com/chapters/62672

Here is the abstract: I have modified the punctuation for clarity, but have not changed the words.
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone derived from tryptophan that is mainly released from the pineal gland in the dark.
Melatonin regulates many biological functions such as sleep, circadian rhythm, immunity, and reproduction.
Melatonin has free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. It scavenges reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and increases antioxidant defenses, thus it prevents tissue damage and blocks transcriptional factors of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Due to its small size and amphiphilic nature, it increases the efficacy of mitochondrial electron transport chain and reduces electron leakage.
Melatonin prevents degenerative changes in the central nervous system in models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and reduces free radical damage to DNA (which may lead to cancer and many other situations).
Consequently, melatonin has beneficial effects including stimulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, so it contributes to protection from oxidative damage.

FURTHER INFORMATION
I looked up a number of recent articles on the subject: none of them is against Melatonin use, although they all include the “LEGALESE” phrasing which indemnifies the writer against lawsuits.
For example, this “CYA”: “there’s not enough information yet about possible side effects to have a clear picture of overall safety. Short-term use of melatonin supplements appears to be safe for most people, but information on the long-term safety of supplementing with melatonin is lacking”.

“HEALTHLINE”
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/melatonin#bottom-line
says:
“The Bottom Line:
Melatonin supplements haven’t been linked to any serious side effects, even at very high doses. However, most experts agree that more research on its long-term safety is needed.
Thus, sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant or breastfeeding women, should consult their doctors before taking it. Even so, melatonin has an excellent safety profile and appears to be an effective sleep aid. If you often experience poor sleep, it may be worth trying.
Healthline’s other site says:
“The bottom line:
Melatonin may improve sleep, eye health, seasonal depression, HGH levels and GERD.
Doses of 0.5–10 mg per day appear to be effective, though it’s best to follow label recommendations.
Melatonin is safe and associated with minimal side effects, but may interact with some medications. It’s currently not recommended for children.

The NIH (US National Institute of Health)
https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/melatonin-what-you-need-to-know
says:
A 2015 review on the safety of melatonin supplements indicated that only mild side effects were reported in various short-term studies of adults, surgical patients, and critically ill patients.
Some of the mild side effects that were reported in the studies included Headache, Dizziness, Nausea, Sleepiness.
The possible long-term side effects of melatonin use are unclear.

Johns Hopkins
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/melatonin-for-sleep-does-it-work?
says
“Less is more:” take 1 to 3 milligrams two hours before bedtime.
To ease jet lag, try taking melatonin two hours before your bedtime at your destination, starting a few days before your trip”
and
“If melatonin for sleep isn’t helping after a week or two, stop using it.
And if your sleep problems continue, talk with your health care provider.
If melatonin does seem to help, it’s safe for most people to take nightly for one to two months. After that, stop and see how your sleep is,”

Even the Mayo Clinic, which usually objects to people taking supplements,
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/melatonin-side-effects/faq-20057874
says:
“Melatonin is generally safe for short-term use. Unlike with many sleep medications, with melatonin you are unlikely to become dependent, have a diminished response after repeated use (habituation), or experience a hangover effect.”

MY BOTTOM LINE:

Melatonin has hormonal and nonhormonal functions.
It helps Allopregnanolone put us to sleep.
It controls the circadian rhythm, is a powerful antioxidant, protects membrane lipids and nuclear DNA from oxidative damage, boosts the immune system, is anti-cancer and does many other “jobs” for the body.
WE LOSE MELATONIN PRODUCTION PROGRESSIVELY AS WE AGE.
We end up with deficiency of our best, necessary, natural antioxidant.
It makes good sense to supplement it and 10mg per 24 hours is a “good guess” dose.
Its half-life is only 20-50 minutes, so I fail to understand why it would cause morning drowsiness. It is best taken at night because it asssists Allopregnanolne with brain maintenance and repair, during sleep.
IF YOU CAN’T GET TO SLEEP, the first thought is, are you deficient in MAGNESIUM, or the sleep hormone (Allopregnanolone) precursor, PROGESTERONE.
The second thought is, are you anxious due to low DHEA, Testosterone and/or Oestrogen.
The third: is your problem confusion/anxiety/poor cognition from intracellular hypothyroidism.

In other words, first assess the reason for your insomnia, including careful tests.
Then correct any hormone, vitamin or mineral imbalances.
Then decide whether you need Magnesium, or Progesterone, or T3, or DHEA, or Melatonin or whatever and take a appropriate restorative supplements, as necessary.

Thus the author of the offending article is right, in a way; but shouting “BEWARE MELATONIN” is the wrong way to go about solving the ubiquitous problem of insomnia!

BTW:
(1) Our various low-hormone-origin debilities are not “curable”. Our hormones all reduce progressively from age 26 and once you have reached the stage of symptomatic deficiency, you need to restore the levels on an ongoing basis.
(2) With specific regard to Melatonin Supplements, 1-5 mg is as good as it gets for sleep, but my suggestion is 10mg every night if you are over 60-YO, for its other, very necessary functions.

XENON, THE ATMOSPHERIC ANAESTHETIC

Xenon


Xenon is the ideal anesthetic.

Xenon is a trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere, occurring at approximately 1 part per 11.5 million.
It has 54 protons in its nucleus, so its atomic number is 54.
It has a density of 5.894 kg/m3, about 4.5 times the density of our atmosphere at sea level, so it would sink if the air were still.

This is a noble gas, one of the zero-valence elements, which don’t mix with “ordinary” elements (kind of a “Royal Family” – type thing)….. It will not take part in most common chemical reactions, such as combustion.
Xenon is a natural part of our atmosphere, found at a 1/12.5 million concentration (there must be a lot in the sea, too, because it dissolves in water).
It is environmentally friendly and is not a greenhouse gas.

Xenon can be breathed safely when mixed with 20% , or more, oxygen.
However, at 80% Xe/20% O2, concentration, Xenon produces deep anesthesia.

Anesthesia
Xenon dissolves in blood. It can cross the blood–brain barrier and causes produces deep anesthesia when inhaled along with oxygen. It is 44% more potent than N2O (laughing gas) as an anesthetic, causes less nausea and vomiting after anesthesia and has a lower risk of hypoxia.

Also, although modern systems recycle it (for economy) when it is used as an anaesthetic, any xenon that escapes to the atmosphere is just returning to its original source, so there is no environmental impact.

Therefore Xenon is the ideal anaesthetic and has been used, with oxygen, for general anaesthesia. However it is too expensive to use on a regular basis.

The brain and the heart
Xenon is not neurotoxic: it actually protects the brain cells.
Plus, it is also cardioprotective (it protects heart cells).
So it can be used safely after ischemic insults ** to the brain and other organs.
Therefore it is an ideal anaesthetic and has been used, with oxygen, for general anaesthesia.
However it is too expensive to use on a regular basis.

** Periods of low oxygenation due to blood loss or blockage by blood clots.

Sports doping
Inhaling a xenon/oxygen mixture leads to elevation of erythropoietin, resulting in higher production of red blood cells, so the blood can carry more oxygen.
So theoretically Xenon could be abused by athletes, to increase red blood cell production and thereby, athletic performance.
Although there aren’t any tests to check on it, the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) added Xenon (and argon) to the list of prohibited substances in 2014.
Reportedly (I don’t know if this is true) doping with Xenon inhalation has been used in Russia.

SpaceShips:
Xenon can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in, and will pass through, plastics and rubber, so containers need special seals.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight, can be stored as a pressurised liquid at near room temperature and evaporates easily to feed the engine.

It is less corrosive, doesn’t explode and is environmentally friendly, and so is safer for an ion engine than other fuels.
Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the 1970s and later, it was used for JPL’s Deep Space 1 probe, Europe’s SMART-1 spacecraft and NASA’s Dawn Spacecraft.

Other interesting stuff
– The speed of sound in xenon gas (169 m/s) is less than that in air. Hence, xenon lowers voice tones: the opposite of the high-toned voice produced by helium.
– Our breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly, so heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs.
– There is, however, a danger associated with any heavy gas in large quantities: it may sit invisibly in a container, and a person who enters an area filled with an odorless, colorless gas may be anesthetised without warning. **
Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, but it should be borne in mind.
** See XCRATH !, chapters 52-54.

Writing a SciFi tale about a planet with a high concentration of Xenon in the atmosphere was such HUGE fun !
We were in Saudi Arabia and while my work was just as interesting and absorbing as it had been in Toronto, I was only busy half the time (including preparing lectures for the residents) ….. I was playing SPIDER solitaire for hours at a time and was bored stiff. ……….
My wife was concerned about it and in 1998, she exclaimed “WHY DON”T YOU WRITE A BOOK?”.
I started “XCRATH !” in November, 1998, writing on paper, then switched to Dragon Dictate.
I finally finished it, after seven proofreadings, in 2003.
– (BTW, Dragon version 6 was the best! – I eventually got up to version 15, in 2019, so I know!).

REFERENCES
Note that these were taken from Wikipedia and I have not read them.

Sanders, Robert D.; Ma, Daqing; Maze, Mervyn (2005). “Xenon: elemental anaesthesia in clinical practice”. British Medical Bulletin. 71 (1): 115–35. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh034. PMID 15728132.

Marx, Thomas; Schmidt, Michael; Schirmer, Uwe; Reinelt, Helmut (2000). “Xenon anesthesia” (PDF). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 93 (10): 513–7. doi:10.1177/014107680009301005. PMC 1298124. PMID 11064688. Retrieved 2007-10-02.

“Chemistry: Where did the xenon go?”. Nature. 471 (7337): 138. 2011. Bibcode:2011Natur.471T.138.. doi:10.1038/471138d.

Neice, A. E.; Zornow, M. H. (2016). “Xenon anaesthesia for all, or only a select few?”. Anaesthesia. 71 (11): 1259–1272. doi:10.1111/anae.13569. PMID 27530275.

Banks, P.; Franks, N. P.; Dickinson, R. (2010). “Competitive inhibition at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediates xenon neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia”. Anesthesiology. 112 (3): 614–22. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181cea398. PMID 20124979.

Ma, D.; Wilhelm, S.; Maze, M.; Franks, N. P. (2002). “Neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties of the ‘inert’ gas, xenon”. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 89 (5): 739–46. doi:10.1093/bja/89.5.739. PMID 12393773.

Goto, T.; Nakata Y; Morita S (2003). “Will xenon be a stranger or a friend?: the cost, benefit, and future of xenon anesthesia”. Anesthesiology. 98 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1097/00000542-200301000-00002. PMID 12502969. S2CID 19119058.

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XCRATH !

SCIENCE-FICTION BOOK COVER
A SCIENCE-FICTION NOVEL BASED ON XENON, AS AN ANAESTHETIC AGENT

A few folks have had a look at my book, entitled “XCRATH !” ! Isn’t that nice ?

It’s a Science-Fiction novel, based on XENON’s anaesthetic properties.
The hooker is that Xenon is in high atmospheric concentration on man’s new planet. ***
It’s the chronicle of space exploration by a multinational crew, with Alien contact, Action, Ecology, Psychology, Philosophy and Medical Humour.
It is an easily readable 264 pages, including a glossary of names and Xcrath – English translations.

It just occurred to me – if you are interested in a 258-page SciFI novel with “how to exceed the speed of light” ideas, in which nobody dies and there’s a happy ending, do get it ………………..
it’s quite well written and slightly humorous ……………………..
I quite like it !

The only thing is that originally I wanted a Canadian publisher (“be Canadian: buy Canadian ! !”),
so I contracted it out to Trafford, a company in BC, with sales through Amazon.Ca.
Unfortunately the quality of the paperback was disappointing and I couldn’t get Trafford to change it at a reasonable cost.

Amazon.Com agreed to produce it through their “create space” site.
The CreateSpace (Amazon.com) product is MUCH better looking, printed on better paper and cheaper, to boot.

So get your XCRATH ! from Amazon.com, not Amazon.Ca .

Have fun reading !

Gervais Harry.
(My nom de plume is Harry Gervais).

*** I’ll do a short blog re. Xenon, in case anyone is interested.

Feb 23, 2022: A note regarding XENON has been added to the blog – it’s fascinating ! Check it out ! http://XENON, THE ATMOSPHERIC ANAESTHETIC

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